Tag Archives: Cold-Resistant

Bromeliad Shop – From the Canary Islands to your home

Canarius | Friday June 11th, 2010 |

Bromeliads, or Bromeliaceae, are highly appreciated plants because of their incredible colours and inflorescences, and their ease of growth in pots. Canarius.com  offers on the internet tough-leaved species with colourful leaves, grown in the Canary Islands. Our bromeliad nursery was expanded in 2012 so our offer is continuously growing with new products. We ship worldwide !

Neoregelia chlorosticta

Neoregelia chlorosticta is a colourful bromeliad

Our Selection of Bromeliads

Billbergia elegans

Delicate flowers of Billbergia

Our shop offers a fine selection of tough-leaved bromeliads that are never available through garden centres.

Most of them belong to the genera Aechmea, Billbergia and Neoregelia. In the Bromeliad Section of our Shop you can buy the most unusual bromeliads with the thickest and most colourful leaves, better adapted to hot and cold conditions of outdoor life. We also offer a selection of “classic” hybrids that have succeeded throughout the years.  Our species grow well in non-tropical climates. Here they are grown outdoors because they like temperature changes and stand outdoors conditions in general. Our bromeliads will better tolerate:

  • Hot direct sun
  • Wind
  • Occasional frosts
  • Drought for weeks

Different light intensities will give plants with different growth and different colours. We grow our plants outdoors, with little or no shade, in order to achieve robust growth and bright colours.

We ship bare rooted plants and “pups”

Aechmea nudicaulis - Bare-root pups

Bare-root pups of Aechmea nudicaulis, ready to be packed.

All bromeliads in catalogue are sold as large pups, which are the robust basal suckers produced after blooming. This type of cutting is the safest way to reproduce bromeliads, because all pups are identical to the mother plant with no unwanted crossings. Futhermore, pups are much stronger than seedlings.

We pre-root the pups for weeks so most of our “pups” will already show some roots when you open the box. Most of these plants are more than pups will reach flowering size in about one year.

In some cases, especially for larger species, pups will be collected shortly after you place the order. They will show few or no roots. Bromeliads can resist for weeks and months without any root because they rely on the water they keep in the leaves. They will quickly set new roots when put in a draining soil at warm temperatures.

Aechmea pectinata pups

Aechmea pectinata pups produced in the Canary Island

  • Large species give large pups: We select and ship to your home cuttings of 35-50 cm for large species such as  Aechmea blanchetiana, A. callichroma and Neoregelia joannis. Their weight is 300-600 grams. Pups of large species will often lack roots. The largest species are can take 2 – 3 years to reach maturity.
  • Small species give small pups. Plants like Neoregelia maculata, Aechmea gamosepala and Billbergia elegans can measure 18-30 cm and weight just 150-250 grams. Pups of small species will often have roots. They will probably bloom in one year or less.

If you want to see more pictures of the plants we sell, then visit THIS LINK and see our plants on the packing desk and learn more about what we ship.

Neoregelia burlemarxii

Neoregelia burlemarxii becomes purple during the blooming months

Our Shop

Please visit the Bromeliad Section of our Shop and check back often, because we offer different bromeliads at different times of the year. We ship plants to anywhere in Europe and soon to the rest of the world. Our bromeliads are already growing in most European countries. In 2013 we start shipping worldwide our products !

Aechmea blanchetiana grows

Aechmea blanchetiana grows in full sun and takes light frosts


In the garden, sunny patio, balcony or terrace, being Subtropical and Mediterranean to Warm

The video clip of the Frost-Hardy Palm Trachycarpus princeps in Habitat

Canarius | Thursday May 6th, 2010 |

These are marvelous images from a place in China called “The Stone Gate”, in the habitat of the cold resistant Trachycarpus princeps – a palm species with silvery fan leaves. This video was published in 2008 by Stéphane Ringot, with the original name of “Voyage au Pays des Trachycarpus Princeps“: Trip to the land of T. princeps.

The video shows:

  • The trip by boat and the walk through the forest.
  • Adult, tall palms growing on the vertical cliffs, in full sun, with no soil.
  • Seedlings, juveniles in the shade of the forest
  • Beautiful vistas from the cliff.

Trachycarpus princeps is a new species of palm which is hardy to frost and cold conditions in Europe.

Canarius.com is now offering seedlings with palmate leaves in the shop: Trachycarpus princeps

Mango Varieties sold by Canarius for Mediterranean and Subtropical Climates

Canarius | Wednesday May 5th, 2010 |

The mango tree, Mangifera indica, is an evergreen tropical tree tolerant of cooler conditions and short droughts. There are literally thousands of different types, called varieties or cultivars.

Canarius offers a selection of varieties better adapted to non tropical climates, grafted on a the hardy rootstock “Gomera-1″. You can buy young trees in the shop. Mango will effortlessly grow and fruit outdoors in warm Mediterranean Climates, such as coastal areas of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece. Adult plants resist short freezes at -4°C (25°F), but young trees are more sensitive. Mango is the third most important tropical crop in the Canary Islands, after banana and avocado.  

This is Mango Irwin, grown in Tenerife

Different varieties hide different flavours, fruit sizes and colours. Mangos may be dark green, greenish-yellow, yellow, red, orange or purple. By planting different varieties, the fruiting season can be extended up to four months. Low-growing varieties, such as ” Keitt ” can grow and fruit in large pots. The yellow Canarian mango “Gomera” is the most resistant to cold and frost and it fruits even in South France. “Lippens” fruits well in cooler conditions, so it is planted at higher elevations in the Canaries. “Osteen” is grown commercially in Mediterranean Southern Spain.

Grafting is the best way to reproduce the best varieties. The mangos sold at Canarius are all grafted and the rootstock is the hardy canarian mango “Gomera-1″, because it is resistant to drought and wet, cool soil in winter. Our mango trees are hardier to cold because we use this type of rootstock.

Fruits of Mango Gomera-3. Gomera is a hardy Canarian variety used as a rootstock. Mango trees grafted with gomera are less sensitive to cold and drought.

Canarius offers the varieties that are planted here in the Canary Islands, in our subtropical-mediterranean climate. We ship to your home the same grafted trees that are sold to local farmers , ready to go to the field: same plants, same size, same deep pots.

The plants you purchase are at least 2 years old, because the root trees are grown for 1,5 years before grafting. Then they are grafted and grown for at least six  moremonths. These plants will fruit in two or three years. They will bloom very soon but you will need to remove the inflorescence during the first two years, to allow stronger vegetative growth before fruiting.

Grafting Mangos in the Nursery

In our shop you can purchase a wide selection of mango trees of different varieties. All trees are grafted by hand, with specific cultivars. We ship to any countries in Europe.

Try also our delicious Mango jam with or without sugar, in the honeys & jams section, produced with the mangoes of the Canary Islands.

List of our stock of Mangifera indica
(Not all varieties are available at any time. Sometimes we only supply a few mango cultivars.)

  • Anderson
  • Ataulfo
  • Bill
  • Edward
  • These are the mango plants that we ship to your homeFord
  • Gomera (Hardy Mango)
  • Haden
  • Heidi
  • Irwin
  • Isis
  • Kensington
  • Keitt
  • Lily
  • Lippens
  • Manzanillo
  • Mun
  • Osteen
  • Palmer
  • Sensation
  • Tolbert
  • Tommy Atkins
  • Valencia Pride
  • Van Dyke
  • Zill

Cold-Resistant Palms for Europe

Canarius | Tuesday January 5th, 2010 |

Some palms can take frost and snow. Some grow very well in central Europe. The palm family includes about 2.400 species, mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Most species need warm temperatures but few exceptions occur in the cooler areas of the globe, at higher altitudes or higher latitudes. Hardy palms come from Chile, New Zealand, Morocco, Northern Mexico or China.

Copernicia alba from Argentina is moderately hardy, to about - 8 C

Copernicia alba from Argentina is moderately hardy, to about – 8 C

Most hardy palms bear palmate (fan-shaped) leaves. Fewer have pinnate leaves, and the hardiest are Jubaea and Butia. Most are solitary (single trunked) palms, some are clumping. Collectors will love the frost-hardy genus Butia with about 14 species, and Trachycarpus with nine species and a number of forms and varieties.If you are in a cold area, you might be restricted to use less than ten palm species. Just learn all you can about them and use them well in your landscape. After all, the average tropical garden has less than ten palm species! Plant palms in groups, in lines, in large pots, on the slope, by the pond. Just chose your palm species and enjoy the tropical effect in your garden.Hardiness is given for adult palms. Young plants are often less resistant to cold. If you are purchasing young palms, give them some protection in winter during a few years. Grow well your palms. In northern climates most palms will benefit of exposure to full sun and protection from northerly winds. Check our tips to grow Tropical plants in Cold Europe.

Canarius offers many species able to resist snow and frost.Come and visit the Palm Section of our Shop. We ship to anywhere in Europe.

Some cold-hardy species, according to hardiness:

-18 to -21 C (-0.5 to -6 F):

The hardiest of all palms are two North American species. Rhapidophyllum hystrix and Sabal minor. They are both small fan-leaved palms that can fit in any garden. Rhapidophyllum has long black needles, Sabal minor has a short underground stem. They can be tried virtually anywhere in Europe, as they have been grown successfully from Greece to Scandinavia. Rhapidophyllum can be too slow if summers are not warm enough.

A leaf of the fully hardy Sabal minor. This palm can take about - 21 C.

A leaf of the fully hardy Sabal minor. This palm can take about – 21 C.

-12 C to -18 C (-10.5 to -0.5 F):

Jubea chilensis is the most majestic of all hardy palms. It is all about size, because Jubea has the largest trunk of all palms. It is a pinnate (feather-leaved) palm native to high elevations in Chile. Palm collectors in the tropics dream of having one Jubaea, but it needs some cold to thrive. Fruits are edible nuts and taste much like coconut.Various Trachycarpus species, can take hard frosts, such as T. fortunei, T. nanus, T. takil, T. princeps, T. wagnerianus. Different plants in the N American genus Sabal are hardy, like S. uresana and Sabal x texensis, which the natural cross between Sabal minor and Sabal palmetto. Some more species resist to only – 14 C (6.8 F): Trachycarpus oreophilus and T. geminisectus and the beautiful Trithrinax campestris from Argentina, with silvery stiff, thick, leaves. Nannorrhops can take hard frosts if it is well drained.

Juvenile Trithrinax campestris with silvery leaves

Trithrinax campestris is hardy to about -15 C

Juvenile Trithrinax campestris with silvery leaves

Juvenile Trithrinax campestris with silvery leaves

-9 to -12 C (-15.5 to -10.5 F):

More and more species can be grown where temperatures do not fall too hard. Braheas are blue leaved desert fan palms from Mexico. The most popular are the stately Brahea armata and the low, trunkless B. decumbens. Another desert palm from the Middle East is Nannorrhops ritchiana. Canarius offers different forms originating in different countries. Some forms show incredible grey-white leaves.The exciting genus Butia, has elegant, arching pinnate leaves. About 14 species can take hard frosts, some of the most desirable are Butia eriospatha, B. capitata, B. odorata, B. paraguayensis, B. purpurascens, B. yatay. Some butias bear delicious sweet fruits, juicy and aromatic.Few rainforest palms tolerate hard frosts. Some Mexican Chamaedorea species are hardy, such as Chamaedorea microspadix and Chamaedorea radicalis. Their fine foliage adds a delicate touch to any garden, patio or conservatory. A strong, hardy palm is the Mediterranean fan palm, Chamaerops humilis. It is a clumping fan palm native to SW Europe and Morocco. The moroccan form is known as Chamaerops humilis cerifera. It has beautiful waxy-blue foliage and it is very hardy as it comes from the higher Atlas Mountains. More species of Trachycarpus can be planted outdoors if temperatures never go below 12 C : T. latisectus, T. martianus, T. oreophilus and T. princeps.The genus Phoenix includes the famous date palm, Phoenix dactylifera and the Canary Island palm, Phoenix canariensis. They do take frost, like some other members of the genus: P. loureiroi, P. humilis, P. sylvestris, P. theoprastii. More and more Sabal species can be grown if frosts are not too hard. The following species can take about – 10 C: Sabal domingensis, S. etonia, S. maritima, S. mexicana, S. palmetto, S. rosei. Hardy palms from North America are the dwarf Serenoa repens and the tall, stately whashingtonias, with two species: Washingtonia filifera and W. robusta. A different fan palm is Trithrinax brasiliensis, with large, round, flat fan leaves and beautiful, tropical-looking, yellow flowers.

Frost hardy Chamaerops humilis cerifera from the mountains of Morocco

Frost hardy Chamaerops humilis cerifera from the mountains of Morocco

-2 to -9 C (-28.5 to -15.5 F):

Lots of new genera and species can be tried in milder areas: Arenga engleri and A. micrantha resist to about – 7 C. Different species of Livistona, Parajubaea, Syagrus, Acrocomia aculeata, Copernicia alba. If it really never goes below -4 C, Rhopalostylis from New Zealand, some Caryota species from Asia the wax palms from the Andes, Ceroxylon, such as C. andinum and C. amazonicum, a number of Chamaedorea species, some of the high-elevation Dypsis from Madagascar, the showy, large, grey leaved Bismarckia nobilis, or the fabulous red-leaf palm, Chambeyronia macrocarpa.

Arenga engleri can take frost at - 9 C

Arenga engleri can take frost at – 9 C

Never below -2 C (never below -28.5 F):

The list is just too long. 200 or more palm species can be grown outdoors in lucky climates. If you are in located in the coastal Mediterranean, many of the palms offered by Canarius will grow for you.

You can buy all these palms and many more in the Palm Section of our Shop – We ship to anywhere in Europe.

This is our Parajubaea torallyi torallyi in a 12x14 cm pot

This is our Parajubaea torallyi torallyi in a 12×14 cm pot

Our Trachycarpus takil in a 12 cm pot, ready to be shipped

Our Trachycarpus takil in a 12 cm pot, ready to be shipped

Growing Tropical Plants in Cold Europe – Tips

Canarius | Tuesday January 5th, 2010 |

Tropical and Mediterranean garden styles are spreading through Europe. People are trying new species and new techniques to create exotic gardens in colder, northern climates. While many tropical species cannot survive cold winters, some can be replaced by subtropical species or tropical-looking hardy species. Tropical gardens are often rich in large leaved plants, such as palms and bananas. Mediterranean gardens are not so dense and lush, they rather show open vegetation, sculptured by wind and sun. Shrubs and trees are often enhanced by cacti, yuccas and palms from dry habitats.

Trachycarpus wagnerianus is a frost proof palm species

Trachycarpus wagnerianus is a frost proof palm species, hardy to about -18 C.

Canarius offers some tips to help growers in their tropical adventures:

  • Young plants are often less resistant to cold. If you are purchasing small sizes from Canarius, protect them in winter during a few years, especially if you are pushing the limits of your climate by introducing tender species.
  • Get protection from walls and canopy. Walls and buildings can stop the wind and release warmth at night. Even some large rocks on the ground can help. Canopy (a tree above) make a sheltered environment and helps to minimize the effect of frost or hail.
  • Sun in, wind out. Design the garden so that it can catch the sunlight from the South and trap the warmth. Keep it screened from the coldest winter winds.
  • Try the right speciesPalms and cacti are tropical plants but SOME palms and SOME cacti can grow in even in Northern Europe. Many tropical families or genera include a few species which are hardier than others, usually because their wild habitat is located at high elevations or high latitudes. Hardy Palms will take -18 or below! Canarius offers an excellent selection of hardy tropicals. Check our blog article Hardy Palms for Europe.

    Echinocereus  enneacanthus sarissophorus

    Cold hardy cactus. Echinocereus enneacanthus sarissophorus can take about – 20 C if kept dry.

  • All plants from dry areas increase their hardiness if kept dry. For example, many cacti can take freezes if kept dry. The same species might rot in warmer Mediterranean climates if left outdoors during the winter rains.
  • Desert plants in the garden do better on raised mounds. Palm-like plants from dry regions (Yucca and Dasylirion) and various cacti can take frosts to harder than -10 C (14 F). They will be even hardier if planted in a much drained site, such as a raised mound or in sandy soil.
  • Plants with underground stems increase resistance if mulched. Use abundant mulching during the coldest months. Heliconiabananas, Strelitziasugar-cane, gingers.
  • Use winter protections. All tropical plants will benefit from some protection, from cold, wind or hail. Plants from dry climates, such as cacti, succulents or desert palms might need a shelter for the rain. Learn about how to protect them. Cover them with anti-frost fabric. Build temporary shelters. Use plastic or bubblewrap, Check the temperature. Keen collectors use a number of materials and often provide some heating to the most valuable plants they grow outdoors.

    Yucca rostrata

    Yucca rostrata is a grey leaved beauty from American deserts. It grows into a palm-like frost hardy tree.

  • Think of pots. Move them in for winter. Some exotic plants, like cacti and cycads do very well in pots. Grow tropicals in large pots and take them to a protected place in winter. In many cases a sheltered patio, balcony or the southern wall of the house will be enough. Cacti and succulents will be protected from rain.
  • Cacti and Succulents will rest in winter. Many species can be grown in the North, as long as they are induced to rest during the long and dark months. It is possible to store resting cacti anywhere, as long as they are kept dry and above freezing. Some collectors store them in closets. Few succulents will grow actively indoors in house conditions, because of the lack of sunlight. Gasteria and Haworthia are some exceptions.
  • It is not all about temperature. Warmth is just one of the many needs of a tropical plant. The “Tropical people of the North” often focus too much on temperatures. Think of general horticulture, and think about irrigation, fertilizing, sunlight or shade, pest protection, etc. A well grown healthy plant will tolerate much colder temperatures than its weaker counterpart.

The new Cycads from China – Cold Hardy?

Canarius | Tuesday January 5th, 2010 |

Many new cycad species have been recently introduced in cultivation from China. Some species grow tall, while others are low, trunkless understorey plants. Most of them are from high elevation areas or inland regions, subjected to regular frosts. Some of them are bipinnate cycads with unique “double feather” leaves .

Developing bipinnate leaf of Cycas multifrondis

Developing bipinnate leaf of Cycas multifrondis

The new species of Cycas from China

The genus Cycas has a large number of species in China. Most of them have not been cultivated in the western world until a few years ago, and various new species have been only recently described by botanists. Many are from cold or cool regions. Most species come from Yunnan, which is an inland region of Southern China of very high biological diversity. Yunnan is highly populated and agriculture has taken over the landscape. Thankfully, most cycads occur on rocky and hilly areas which are somehow conserved. The mining industry is threatening some species. Collection of adult specimens for ornamental purposes is also a problem in habitat. In our shop you can purchase many of these species of Cycas, all reproduced from legally purchased seeds.

The Bipinnate Cycads

Some Chinese species of Cycas have bipinnate (double-feather) leaves. These are very graceful, unusual leaves, reminiscent of ferns and little else in the plant kingdom. Many bipinnate cycads are easy, fast growers like Cycas debaoensis. Some others are slow and difficult.

Only one species of bipinnate cycad was known in Europe since the early XXth century and this was Cycas micholitzii. In recent years the new species from China reached the market and achieved incredible prices in the world seed trade.

A bipinnnate cycad leaf

A bipinnnate cycad leaf

Cold hardiness of some Chinese species

Cycas debaoensis tolerated about -8 C (17 F) in California. It is an easy species, that grows back very fast. Collectors noticed that a heavy mulch improves hardiness.

Cycas longipetiolula grows well in cool and wet conditions and is hardy to short, light frosts of -2 C.  Adult leaves are incredibly ornamental and fern-like, to about 4 m (12 ft.) tall.

Juvenile bipinnate leaf  of Cycas longipetiolula

Juvenile bipinnate leaf of Cycas longipetiolula

Cycas multifrondis and Cycas multipinnata. Little or nothing is known about frost tolerance of these bipinnate cycas. Both are new and beautiful, fast, easy growing species. As we see, they prefer the cool, wet winters of the Canary Islands, rather than the hot and dry summer. Cycas multifrondis is especially graceful because of the wavy leaf margins.

Cycas panzihuahuensis is widely thought to be one of the most cold-hardy of all the cycads. It is grown outdoors in the United Kingdom. It takes about -9 C (16 F) and below. It will quickly come back if defoliated.

Cycas diannanensis is another frost hardy species. It grows at about 1200 m (4000 ft) asl, but the highest populations, known in the market as Cycas diannanensis Mountain Form, achieves 1800 m (5900 ft) asl. Once again, the species is so new to growers do not know how hardy it exactly is.

Cycas diannanensis underleaf

Frost-hardy Cycas diannanensis, from high mountains in China.

Cycas guizhouensis, from the province of Guizhou stands about -8 C (17 F). It is a small, robust cycad with flat, shiny grey-green leaves and narrow leaflets. It is native to Guizhou, Guanxi and Yunnan, in China, where it grows in scrubby open forests on steep limestone slopes. Cycas guizhouensis is an easy grower and does well in Mediterranean and warm temperate climates, as it can take moderate frosts.

Cycas guizhouensis easily grows outdoors in Mediterranean Climates. We ship these plants to Europe.

Cycas guizhouensis easily grows outdoors in Mediterranean Climates. We ship these plants to Europe.

All these species are new to many collectors and we will update the blog as soon as we learn more about their cold tolerance. We would like you to tell us your experiences with chinese cycads in your garden.

Try an increasing selection of chinese species in the Cycad section of our plant shop!